types of cargo
- Break bulk or General cargo
Break bulk or general cargo are goods that must be loaded individually, and not in intermodal containers nor in bulk as with oil or grain. Ships that carry this sort of cargo are called general cargo ships. The term break bulk derives from the phrase breaking bulk ... the extraction of a portion of the cargo of a ship or the beginning of the unloading process from the ship's holds. Break bulk cargo is transported in bags, boxes, crates, drums, or barrels. Often items are secured to a pallet or skid.
- Bulk cargo
- Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities. It refers to material in liquid, granular or particulate form, as a mass of relatively small solids, such as petroleum/crude oil, grain, coal, or gravel. This cargo is usually dropped or poured, with a spout or shovel bucket, into a bulk carrier ship's hold, railroad car/railway wagon, or tanker truck/trailer/semi-trailer body. Smaller quantities (still considered "bulk") can be boxed (or drummed) and palletised.
Dry bulk refers to grain, coal, iron ore, cement, sugar, salt and sand. They are not packaged separately, but transported in large quantities in the hold of a ship, wagon or lorry.
Liquid bulk is shipped in a tanker (or tankship) designed to transport or store liquids or gases (LNG) in bulk. Other commodities include, petroleum, vegetable oils, molasses, wine, chemicals ( such as ammonia, chlorine, and styrene monomer), fresh water etc
- Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport using intermodal containers (also called shipping containers and ISO containers). The containers have standardized dimensions. They can be loaded and unloaded, stacked, transported efficiently over long distances, and transferred from one mode of transport to another—container ships, rail transport flatcars, and semi-trailer trucks—without being opened. All containers are numbered and tracked using computerized systems.
Neo-bulk cargo is a type of general cargo and comprises goods that are prepackaged, counted as they are loaded and unloaded (as opposed to bulk cargo where individual items are not counted), not stored in containers, and transferred as units at port. Types of neo-bulk cargo goods include heavy machinery, lumber, bundled steel, scrap iron, bananas, waste paper, and cars.
Consumer goods (clothing, electronics, products) in bulk are often transported in containers. By efficiently loading the goods, they can be transported simultaneously in large quantities. One twenty foot container can hold the shopping of 300 trolleys!
Reefers are refrigerated containers used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled transportation, such as fruit, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foods.
- Passenger cargo
- A passenger ship is a luxury merchant ship whose primary function is to carry passengers on the sea.
- Ro-ro cargo
- Ro-ro refers to 'roll on / roll off'. This name explains how the cargo is discharged and loaded. This concerns cargo that can be driven which is only done by specially trained drivers. Ro-ro is used for cars, busses, trucks, agricultural vehicles and cranes. To transport as many of these vehicles in one go, enormous ro-ro vessels have been built. Some ro-ro vessels have enough room for more than 8,500 cars!
- Project cargo
- Project cargo is a term used to broadly describe the national or international transportation of large, heavy, high value, or critical (to the project they are intended for) pieces of equipment. Also commonly referred to as heavy lift, this includes shipments made of various components which need disassembly for shipment and reassembly after delivery.
Manica group companies are relationship-driven due to the nature and time framing of logistics services, in most cases Manica requires clients to complete a credit application form to activate an account and to provide easier service flow and payment terms.
Download this Credit Application Form
and submit the signed version to Manica Finance Debtors Control
Below are the basic documentation our agents may ask for depending on your service request. Including these documents in your initial request will ensure that our teams can provide prompt and clear information as opposed to sending numerous emails to and fro.
Clearing Services (Imports)
- Commodity Invoice
- Packing List (if available)
- Bill of Lading or Airwaybill
- Certificates and Permits (if available)
- Ships Particulars
- Tonnage and Commodity to be offloaded / loaded
- Shipping Terms
- Crew List, incl. Nationalities (if crew changes are required)
- Commodity and CBM
- Duration of storage required
- Certificates and permits (if available)
- Completed DMA form (Download)
- Insurance certificates
what are incoterms
Incoterms, also known as Trade Terms are key elements of international contracts of sale. They tell the parties what to do with respect to carriage of the goods from buyer to seller, and export & import clearance. They also explain the division of costs and risks between the parties.
The ICC has launched the Incoterms 2020, which is effective from the 1st of January 2020. The Incoterms 2020 does not contain major changes, it is providing more clarity on how to use the Incoterms. The most important difference is in the Incoterms 2020 a new Incoterm DPU (Delivered at Place Unloaded) replaces the Incoterms DAT (Delivered at Terminal). The place of destination can be any place and does not have to be a terminal.
- EXW (Ex Works)
- The seller fulfills its obligations by having the goods available for the buyer to pick up at its premises or another named place (i.e. factory, warehouse, etc.) on a date agreed upon by both parties or within an agreed-upon timeframe. The seller needs to provide the buyer the information they to take delivery of the goods at that time.
With Ex Works, the buyer bears all risk and costs starting when the goods are made available to the buyer at the seller’s location or other named place until the products are delivered to its location. Seller has no obligation to load the goods or clear them for export.
- FCA (Free Carrier)
- The seller is responsible for either making the goods available at its own premises or at a named place. In either case, the seller is responsible for loading the goods on the buyer's transport and is responsible for delivery to the port and export clearance including security requirements. Risk transfers once the goods are loaded on the buyer’s transport.
This term has changed the most in the Incoterms 2020 rules. Previously, problems occurred with this term when the seller was responsible for loading the goods on a truck or some other transport hired by the buyer and not directly on the international carrier. If the seller and buyer had agreed on using a letter of credit as the payment method for this transaction, banks often require the seller to present a bill of lading with an on-board notation before they can get paid.
An international carrier won't typically provide a seller who did not present the goods directly to them with such a bill of lading. Under the new Incoterms 2020 rules, FCA allows the parties to agree in the sales contract that the buyer should instruct its carrier to issue a bill of lading with the on-board notation to the seller.
- CPT (Carriage Paid To)
- Seller clears the goods for export and delivers them to the carrier or another person stipulated by the seller at a named place of shipment. Seller is responsible for the international transportation costs associated with delivering goods to the named foreign place of destination.
The transfer of risk, on the other hand, transfers from the seller to the buyer as soon as the goods are delivered to the international carrier. That means the buyer assumes the risk of loading the goods on the carrier and during the international transport of the goods.
Incoterms for Any Mode of Transport
- DAP (Delivered at Place)
Seller clears the goods for export and bears all risks and costs associated with delivering the goods to the named foreign destination not unloaded. DAP means the buyer is responsible for all costs and risks associated with unloading the goods and clearing customs to import the goods into the named country of destination.
The named place under this term can be a port, the buyer's location or any named place that is agreed upon. In that regards, DAP provides a lot of flexibility to both parties.
- DPU (Delivered at Place Unloaded)
Previously named Delivered at Terminal (DAT), this Incoterm has been renamed Delivered at Place Unloaded (DPU) because the buyer and/or seller may want the delivery of goods to occur somewhere other than a terminal. This term is often used for consolidated containers with multiple consignees.
DPU is very similar to DAP except that the seller must pay for unlading the goods. Like DAP, the seller clears the goods for export and bears all risks and costs associated with delivering the goods to the named place, which can be a port or other named location in the foreign destination. Buyer is responsible for all costs and risks from this point forward including clearing the goods for import at the named country of destination.
- DDP (Delivered Duty Paid)
- DDP Incoterms 2020 means the seller bears all risks and costs associated with delivering the goods to the named place of destination ready for unloading and cleared for import.
DDP is a risky term for the seller, because they may not be fully aware of the import clearance procedures in the country of import or how to find a competent local customs broker. The seller must also deal in a foreign currency, which means they are responsible for the currency exchange and its associated risks. In addition, not all countries allow for non-resident importers, which means the seller must determine how to establish an importer of record.
Incoterms for Sea Freight
FAS (Free Alongside Ship)
- Seller clears the goods for export and delivers them when they are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. Buyer assumes all risks/costs for goods from this point forward. This is not a commonly used term except for goods that may be difficult to load.
- FOB (Free on Board)
- Seller clears the goods for export and delivers them when they are on board the vessel at the named port of shipment. Buyer assumes all risks and costs for goods from this moment forward. This term is also not commonly used except, perhaps, by U.S. companies that misuse the term because they confuse it with the domestic term FOB.
- CFR (Cost and Freight)
- Seller clears the goods for export and delivers them when they are on board the vessel at the port of shipment. Seller bears the cost of freight to the named port of destination. Buyer assumes all risks for the goods from the time the goods have been delivered on board the vessel at the port of shipment.
This term sounds a lot like the Incoterm CPT, but it can only be used for sea and inland waterway transport, and the buyer only assumes risk once the goods are loaded on the vessel.
- CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight)
- Seller clears the goods for export and delivers them when they are on board the vessel at the port of shipment. Seller bears the cost of freight and insurance to the named port of destination. The seller is required to purchase the minimum level of insurance under Clause C of the Institute Cargo Clauses. This requirement is unchanged from Incoterms 2010.
Buyer is responsible for all costs associated with unloading the goods at the named port of destination and clearing goods for import. Risk passes from seller to buyer once the goods are on board the vessel at the port of shipment.
Crossborder routes & Corridors
The Walvis Bay Corridor Group (WBCG) was established in 2000 to engage in business development activities – thereby increasing cargo for ports and corridors linked to it, and to engage in the facilitation of corridor and infrastructure development. The Walvis Bay Corridors are an integrated system of well maintained tarred roads and rail networks – accommodating all modes of transport – from the Port of Walvis Bay via the Trans Kalahari, Walvis Bay-Ndola-Lubumbashi Development Corridor (previously known as the Trans-Caprivi), Trans-Cunene and Trans-Oranje Corridors providing landlocked SADC countries access to transatlantic markets.
The Walvis Bay Corridors are positioned to give the country a competitive edge as a transport hub for all regional and international trade between the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Europe, the America’s and the rest of the world. Through our world-class commercial port at Walvis Bay, international shipping connection and the added advantage of being a gateway to the west coast of Africa, Namibia plays an increasingly important role in trade, linking the global economic centres to over 330 million consumers in southern Africa.
TRANS KALAHARI CORRIDOR
Namibia – Botswana – South Africa [links to Zimbabwe & Mozambique]
The Trans Kalahari Corridor (TKC) was jointly built by the Namibian and Botswana Governments in the 1990s with an initial investment of approximately N$850 million and was officially opened in 1998.
The Trans Kalahari Corridor is a tripartite trans-boundary corridor that stretches over 1,900 km along Walvis Bay-Windhoek-Gaborone-Johannesburg. It is supported by a railway line from the Port of Walvis Bay to Gobabis (via Windhoek), where transhipment facilities are available, and continues from Lobatse in Botswana.
The TKC is a strategic route-of-choice that provides linkages between the Americas and East European markets into the southern African hinterland. The Trans Kalahari Corridor is complemented by the Maputo Corridor on the east coast of Africa, thus forming a transport corridor over the entire breadth of southern Africa. The TKC is managed by the Trans Kalahari Corridor Secretariat.
WALVIS BAY-NDOLA-LUBUMBASHI DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR
Namibia – Zambia – Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) [links to Zimbabwe, Malawi & Tanzania]
The Walvis Bay-Ndola-Lubumbashi Development Corridor (WBNLDC) links the Port of Walvis Bay with Zambia, the southern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Zimbabwe. This corridor also connects via Zambia into Malawi and Tanzania. The Corridor runs via the former Caprivi Strip in north-eastern Namibia and enters Zambia via the Katima Mulilo bridge, which was completed in 2004. This development added to the existing WBNLDC, which was officially opened in 1999, resulting in the completion of the WBNLDC Corridor.
The corridor stretches over 2,500 km and is supported by a railway line between Walvis Bay and Grootfontein, where transhipment facilities are available. The railway line resumes in Livingstone, Zambia. The WBNLDC highway was officially opened in 1999. In May 2004, the bridge over the Zambezi River at Katima Mulilo (Namibia) and Sesheke (Zambia) was completed, which further developed what has now become the WBNLDC.
Namibia – Angola
The Trans-Cunene corridor links the Port of Walvis Bay with southern Angola up to Lubango, over a distance of 1,600km. In May 1997, the Republic of Namibia and the Republic of Angola formally agreed to create the Trans-Cunene corridor as a means of opening northern Namibia and southern Angola to economic development opportunities.
The Corridor road infrastructure is supported by the northern railway line, which presently extends from the Port of Walvis Bay to Oshikango. A further extension of the rail line across the Angolan border is planned, where Angola will extend their rail line to connect to this line. The Angolan Government is in progress with road rehabilitations nationwide, which include the Santa Clara – Lubango leg, as well as the Lubango – Lobito leg which extends the Trans-Cunene Corridor up to Luanda.
TRANS ORANJE CORRIDOR
Namibia – South Africa
The Trans-Oranje Corridor (previously known as the Southern Extension) is a tarred road linking the Ports of Walvis Bay and Lüderitz with the Northern Cape Province of South Africa.
The Corridor is complemented by a railway line from the Port of Lüderitz extending southwards to the Northern Cape Province via Upington.